The recent turbulent weather patterns across the world ranging from the coldest day in north America to the hottest day in Australia, there can be no doubt that the climate warming effect is having a major impact on our planet.

While most countries have acknowledged that carbon emissions are a primary cause of climate change there are a few that are “deniers” and put short term gains against long term damage.

The UK is among the leaders in carbon reduction and it is planned that by 2030 we will be zero or close to carbon neutral.

Many organisations have incorporated ISO 14001 as part of their carbon calculator and, of course as a management tool and a marketing advantage.

What organisations do not realise is that the 2015 standard can be self-determined and self-certificated rather than following the External Certification Route with a UKAS Accredited Certification Body; this is available for low risk organisations only.  These tend to be office based and others with a low significant aspect count.

We started this blog with the title ISO 14001:2015 and the EU and as there is so much emphasis on BREXIT at the moment, we are being asked what effect will a hard or soft BREXIT have on this European Standard?  The entire title of the Environmental Standard is

BS EN ISO 14001:2015.

BS – means that it is an adopted British Standard
EN – means it is an adopted European Standard
ISO – means it is an adopted International Standard.

Fortunately, there will be no impact on ISO 14001 on the UK post BREXIT.

There will be some areas where European directives which have not been transposed into ULK Law may impact on our compliance with these directives. 

We are assured by HM Government that matters are in hand to advise us of the situation post BREXIT whether it be hard or soft. 

We will have to wait and see

The official blog for independent Management Training
Consultancy, Quality Matters Limited.

Environmental management is becoming more important year by year and since the 2015 version was issued it focussed the minds of many company directors on the need to show they were committed to preventing pollution and protecting our fragile planet.

The main requirement of the Standard is to control and/or mitigate the effects of significant aspects.

A significant aspect is one where the impact on the environment is considered sufficiently serious.

Many low risk companies probably have only one or two significant aspects and some do not have any at all.  This makes it difficult for an external assessor to audit and award a certificate.

The Standard shows four routes to demonstrate conformity:

  1. Making a self-determination and self- declaration, or
  2. Seeking confirmation of its conformance by parties having an interest in the organisation, such as customers, or
  3. Seeking confirmation of its self-declaration by a party external to the organisation, or
  4. Seeking certification/registration of its environmental management system by an external organisation.

The route for high risk organisations is through the last option where an assessment is made by a UKAS accredited certification body.

Low and medium risk organisations can opt for option two or option three

Very low risk organisations can use option one.

We have carried out audits of low and medium organisations to confirm their self-determination and self-declarations status.

This information of conformity is contained in the ISO 14001:2015 Standard on page viii.

The official blog for independent Management Training
Consultancy, Quality Matters Limited.

There is an air of panic with organisations that have not yet transitioned to the 2015 Standards.  We have been receiving calls from quality and environmental managers to say that they have not yet transitioned and is it too late? 

Although the deadline is 15 September this year it is almost impossible to get an assessor to fit you in.  We have very limited availability to complete the necessary changes to systems but it still may not be possible to meet the deadline. 

Only this afternoon I was discussing availability with one of the certification bodies only to be told that the first available date was end of October 2018.  This is way past the cut-off point and it will mean that any organisation missing this cut-off will be deregistered and will have to make a fresh application.

The organisations leaving it all o the last minute have a number of excuses why they have not addressed this issue before but with a full three-year notice period it simply doesn’t hold water.

We will of course do what we can to offset the de-registration.

The official blog for independent Management Training
Consultancy, Quality Matters Limited.

According to a survey carried out with certification bodies in the UK, some 60% of organisations holding ISO 9001 and/or ISO 14001 have not transitioned to the 2015 standards.

The deadline for transition is 14 September 2018 ad it is essential that the transition assessment and any findings from that assessment are cleared.

I heard from one certification body that they expect UKAS to extend the deadline; we cannot stress enough that the deadline will NOT be extended under any circumstance and any organisation failing to transition will automatically be withdrawn from the register of certificated companies.

Any organisation that becomes de-certified will have to undergo a fresh application as though they never had a certificate, i.e. a new application then stage one followed by a stage two before the issue of a certificate can take place. Tenders and orders which mandate certification to 9001 and/or 14001 will be at risk.

The aircraft, defence and space standards AS9100, AS9110 and AS9120 also have a deadline date of 14 September 2018 even though the standard was published a year later than the 9001/14001 standards. Again, automatic de-certification will take place unless transition to the new standards is made.

If you have not transitioned yet, we recommend urgent action should be taken to be ready for the deadline. Time is short and of course you may be ready but cannot get an assessor in to do the two stages necessary for compliance. (assessors are incredibly busy and make bookings many months ahead).

Time is short for transition

The official blog for independent Management Training
Consultancy, Quality Matters Limited.

The deadline for transition to ISO 9001:2015, ISO 14001:2015 and the Aircraft, Space and Defence Standards AS 9100D, AS9110C and AS 9120B is 15 September 2018.

While this may seem a long way off it is important to remember that the transition and correction and acceptance of any corrective action identified by an assessor must be completed satisfactorily by the deadline date.

Both UKAS for the quality and environmental standards and IAQG for the Aircraft, Space and Defence standards have made it very clear that there can be no extensions or relaxation of the deadlines for any reason.  Any organisation missing the deadline will be deregistered.  There is no appeal mechanism.  The organisation will lose certification and will have to start from scratch to regain certification.  There is a fairly big cost involved in this and loss of certification in the intervening period may result in inadmissibility for tenders and/ or cancellation of contracts requiring one or more of the standards as a mandatory requirement.

The revised Standards are quite different in their approach and require more involvement from Senior Directors and Managers.  This can be a problem where the requirement for understanding and operating the standards has, historically, been delegated to others lower down the organisation.

We at Quality Matters have helped a number of Clients to effect the transition and while we have sought to make it simple to use there have been a number of top management who have been  forced to become engaged in the systems.

The Aircraft, Space and Defence Standards were issued at the end of 2016 but the transition dates have been aligned with the ISO standards. I.E.  15 September 2018 ; a fairly tight schedule.

We urge all holders of certification that are affected by these changes to ensure that their transition is carried out in good time to avoid loss of certification.  Remember you may be ready, but assessors are committed to the stage one for transition followed by stage two on site.  Availability may be a governing factor.

The official blog for independent Management Training
Consultancy, Quality Matters Limited.

9. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

9.1  Monitoring, measurement, analysis and evaluation

Details the requirements for the organisation to monitor, measure, analyse and evaluate its environmental performance.   The organisation must determine:

  • What needs to be monitored and measured?
  • The methods for monitoring, measurement, analysis and evaluation, as applicable, to ensure valid results;
  • The criteria against which the organisation will evaluate its environmental performance, and appropriate indicators;
  • When monitoring and measurement must be performed?
  • When the results from monitoring and measurement must be analysed and evaluated?

The organisation must ensure that calibrated or verified monitoring and measurement equipment is used and maintained, as appropriate.

The organisation must evaluate its environmental performance and the effectiveness of the environmental management system.

The organisation must communicate relevant performance information both internally and externally, as identified in its communication process(es) and as required by its compliance obligations.

The organisation must retain appropriate documented information as evidence of the monitoring, measurement analysis and evaluation results.

9.2  Evaluation of compliance

Details the requirement for the organisation to establish, implement and maintain the processes needed to evaluate fulfilment of its compliance obligations.

The organisation must:

  • Determine the frequency that compliance will be evaluated;
  • Evaluate compliance and take action if needed;
  • Maintain knowledge and understanding of its compliance status.

The organisation must retain documented information as evidence of the compliance evaluation result(s).

9.3 Internal audit programme

Details the requirement for the organisation to establish, implement and maintain and internal audit programme(s) including the frequency, methods, responsibilities, planning requirements and reporting of internal audits.

When establishing the audit programme, the organisation must take into consideration the environmental importance of the processes concerned, changes affecting the organisation and the results of previous audits.

The organisation must:

  • Define the criteria and scope of each audit;
  • Select auditors and conduct audits to ensure objectivity and impartiality of the audit process;
  • Ensure that the results of the audits are reported to relevant management.

The organisation must retain documented information as evidence of the implementation of the audit programme and the audit results.

9.4 Management review

Details the requirement that the organisation’s top management must review its environmental management system, at planned intervals, to ensure its continuing suitability, adequacy and effectiveness.

The management review must include:

  • The status of actions from previous management reviews;
  • Changes in:
    • External and internal issues that are relevant to the environmental management system;
    • The needs and expectations of interested parties, including compliance obligations;
    • It’s significant environmental aspects;
    • Risks and opportunities;
  • The extent to which environmental objectives have been achieved;
  • information on the organisation’s environmental performance, including trends on:
    • nonconformities and corrective actions;
    • monitoring and measuring results;
    • fulfilment of its compliance obligations;
    • audit results;
  • Adequacy of resources;
  • Relevant communication(s) from interested parties, including complaints;
  • Opportunities for continual improvement.

The outputs of the management review must include;

  • Conclusions on the continuing suitability, adequacy and effectiveness of the environmental management system;
  • Decisions related to continual improvement opportunities;
  • Decisions related to any need for changes to the environmental management system, including resources;
  • Actions, if needed, when environmental objectives have not been achieved;
  • Opportunities to improve integration of the environmental management system with other business processes, if needed;
  • Any implications for the strategic direction of the organisation.

The organisation must retain documented information as evidence of the results of management reviews.

10. IMPROVEMENT

10.1 General

Details the requirements that the organisation must determine opportune tries for improvement and implement necessary actions to achieve intended out comes of its environmental management system.

10.2 Nonconformity and corrective action

Details the requirement that the organisation must;

  • React to the nonconformity and, as applicable:
    • Take action to control, and correct it;
    • Deal with the consequences, including mitigating adverse environmental impacts;
  • Evaluate the need for action to eliminate the causes of the nonconformity, in order that it does not recur or occur elsewhere by:
    • Reviewing the nonconformity;
    • Determining the cause of the nonconformity;
    • Determining if similar nonconformities exist, or could potentially occur;
  • Implement any actions needed;
  • Review the effectiveness of any corrective action taken;
  • Make changes to the environmental management system, if necessary.

Corrective action must be appropriate to the significance of the effects of the nonconformities encountered, including the environmental impact(s).

The organisation must retain documented information as evidence of:

  • The nature of the nonconformities and any subsequent actions taken;
  • The results of any corrective action.

10.3 Continual improvement

Details the requirement that the organisation must continually improve the suitability, adequacy, and effectiveness of the environmental management system to enhance environmental performance.

The official blog for independent Management Training
Consultancy, Quality Matters Limited.

SUPPORT

7.1 Resources

Details the requirement for the organisation to determine and provide the resources needed for the establishment, implementation, maintenance and continual improvement of the environmental management system.

7.2 Competence

Details the requirement that the organisation must:

•    Determine the necessary competence of person(s) doing work under its control that affects its environmental performance and its ability to fulfil its compliance objectives;
•    Ensure that these persons are competent on the basis of appropriate education, training or experience;
•    Where applicable, take actions to acquire the necessary competence, and evaluate the effectiveness of the actions taken.

7.3  Awareness

Details the requirement that the organisation must ensure that persons doing work under the organisation’s control are aware of:

•    The environmental policy;
•    The significant aspects and related actual or potential environmental impacts associated with their work;
•    Their contribution to the effectiveness of the environmental managements system, including the benefits of enhanced environmental performance;
•    The implications of not conforming with the environmental management system requirements, including not fulfilling the organisation’s compliance obligations.

7.4 Communication

 

7.4.1  General

Details of the requirements that the organisation must establish, implement and maintain the processes needed for internal and external communications relevant to the environmental management system including:

  • On what to communicate?
  • With whom to communicate?
  • How to communicate?

When establishing its communication process(es) the organisation must:

  • Take into account its compliance obligations;
  • Ensure that the environmental information communicated is consistent with information generated within the environmental management system, and is reliable.

The organisation must respond to relevant communications on its environmental management system.

The organisation must retain documented information as evidence of its communications, as appropriate.

7.4.2  Internal communication

Details of the requirement that the organisation must:

  • Communicate internally on information relevant to the environmental management system among the various levels and functions of the organisation, including changes to the environmental management system, as appropriate;
  • Ensure its communication process(es) enable(s) persons doing work under the organisation’s control to contribute to continual improvement.

7.4.3  External communication

Details of the requirement that the organisation must:

  • Communicate externally on information relevant to the environmental management system, as established by the organisation’s communication process(es) and as required by its compliance obligations;

7.5   Documented information

 

7.5.1  General

Details the requirement that the organisation’s environmental management system must include:

  • Documented information required by ISO 14001:2015;
  • Documented information determined by the organisation as being necessary for the effectiveness of the environmental managements system.

7.5.2  Creating and updating

Details the requirement that creating and updated document information must be controlled:

  • Identification and description (e.g. title date, author or reference number);
  • Format (e.g. language, software version, graphics) and media (e.g. paper, electronic);
  • Review and approval for suitability and adequacy.

7.5.3  Control of documented information 

Details the requirements to ensure that documented information required by the environmental management system and ISO 14001:2015 must be controlled to ensure:

  • It is available and suitable for use, where and when it is needed;
  • It is adequately protected (e.g. from loss of confidentiality, improper use, or loss of integrity);
  • Computer back-up and protection of back-up copies.

The organisation must address the following activities, as applicable:

  • Distribution, access, retrieval and use;
  • Storage and preservation, including preservation of legibility;
  • Retention and disposal.

Documented information of external origin determined by the organisation to be necessary for the planning and operation of the environmental management system must be identified, as appropriate, and controlled.

8. OPERATION

 

8.1 Operational planning and control

 

Details the requirement that the organisation must establish, implement, control and maintain the processes needed to meet environmental management systems requirements, and to implement the actions identified in 6.1 and 6.3 by:

  • Establishing operating criteria for the processes;
  • Implementing control of the process(es).

The organisation must control planned changes and review the consequences of unintended changes, taking action to mitigate any adverse effects, as necessary.

The organisation must ensure that an outsourced process(es) is (are) controlled or influenced.  The type of control or influence to be applied to the process(es) must be defined within the environmental management system.

Consistent with a lifecycle perspective, the organisation must:

  • Establish controls],  as appropriate, to ensure that its environmental requirement(s) is (are) addressed in the design and development process for the product or service, considering EACH STAGE OF ITS LIFECYCLE;
  • Determine its environmental requirement(s) for the procurement of products and services, as appropriate;
  • Communicate its relevant environmental requirement(s) to external; providers, including contractors;
  • Consider the need to provide information about potential significant environmental impacts associated with the TRANSPORTATION, OR DELIVERY, USE, END OF LIFE, TREATMENT AND FINAL DISPOSAL OF PRODUCTS AND SERVICES.

The organisation must retain documented information to the extent necessary to have confidence that the process(es) has(have) been carried out as planned.

8.2  Emergency preparedness and response

Details the requirement that the organisation must establish, implement and maintain the processes needed to prepare for and respond to potential emergency situations identified in 6.11.

The organisation must:

  • Prepare to respond by planning actions to prevent or mitigate adverse environmental impacts from emergency situations;
  • Respond to actual emergency situations;
  • Take actions to prevent or mitigate the consequences of emergency situations, appropriate to the magnitude of the emergency and its potential environmental impact;
  • Periodically test the planned response actions, where practicable;
  • Periodically review and revise the process(es) and planned response actions, in particular after the occurrence of emergency situations or test(s);
  • Provide relevant information and training related to emergency preparedness and response, as appropriate, to relevant interested parties, including persons working under its control.

The organisation must maintain documented information to the extent necessary to have confidence that the process(es) is (are) carried out as planned.

The official blog for independent Management Training
Consultancy, Quality Matters Limited.

PLANNING

6.1 Actions to address risks and opportunities

1. General 

 

Details the requirements to establish, implement and maintain the processes needed to:

  • Understand the organisation and its context;
  • Understand the needs and expectations of interested parties;
  • Set the scope of its environmental management system and determine the risks and opportunities, related to its: 
    • Environmental aspects
    • Compliance obligations
    • Other issues and requirements identified by the organisation that need to be addressed to:
      • Give assurance that the environmental management system can achieve its intended outcomes
      • Prevent, or reduce, undesired effects, including the potential for external environmental conditions to affect the organisation;
      • Achieve continual improvement. 

The organisation must maintain documented information of it’s:

  • Risks and opportunities that need to be addressed;
  • Processes needed to the extent necessary to have confidence they are carried out as planned.

 

2. Environmental aspects

 

Details the requirements, within the scope of the environmental management system, to determine the environmental aspects of its activities, products and services that it can control and those that it can influence, and their associated environmental impacts, considering a life cycle perspective.

When determining environmental aspects, the organisation must take into account:

  • Change, including planned or new developments, and new or modified activities, products and services;
  • Abnormal conditions and reasonably foreseeable emergency situations; 

The organisation must determine those aspects that have or can have a significant environmental impact –  significant aspects.

The organisation must communicate on its significant environmental aspects among the various levels and functions of the organisation, as appropriate.

The organisation must maintain documented information of it’s:

  • Environmental aspects and associated environmental impacts;
  • Criteria used to determine its significant environmental aspects;
  • Significant environmental aspects.

 

3. Compliance obligations 

Details the requirement for the organisation to;

  • Determine and have access to the compliance obligations related to its environmental aspects;
  • Determine how these compliance obligations apply to the organisation;
  • Take these compliance obligations into account when establishing, implementing, maintaining and continually improving its environmental management system.

 

4. Planning action 

Details the requirement to plan:

  • To take actions to address its:
    • Significant 
    • Environmental aspects;
    • Compliance obligations;
    • Risks and opportunities.
  • How to:
    • Integrate and implement the actions into its environmental management system processes;
    •  Evaluate the effectiveness of these actions. 

    6.2 Environmental objectives and planning to achieve them 

     

    1. Environmental objectives  

    Details the requirements for the organisation to establish environmental objectives at relevant functions and levels, taking into account the organisation’s significant environmental aspects and associated compliance obligations, and considering its risks and opportunities.

    The environmental risks must be:

    • Consistent with the environmental policy;
    • Measurable (if practicable);
    • Monitored;
    • Communicated;
    • Updated as appropriate.

    The organisation must maintain documented information on environmental objectives.

     

    2. Planning actions to achieve environmental objectives 

    Details the requirement for the organisation to determine:

    • What will be done?
    • What resources will be required?
    • Who will be responsible?
    • When will it be completed?
    • How the results will be evaluated, including indicators for monitoring progress towards achievement of its measurable environmental objectives?

    The organisation must consider how actions to achieve its environmental objectives can be integrated into the organisation’s business processes.

    The official blog for independent Management Training
    Consultancy, Quality Matters Limited.

    4. CONTEXT OF THE ORGANISATION

    4.1 Understanding the organisation and its context

    Details the requirements that the organisation must determine external and internal issues that are relevant to its purpose and that affect its ability to achieve the intended outcomes of its environmental management system. Such issues include environmental conditions being affected by or capable of affecting the organisation.

    Organisations are expected to measure results against the organisation’s environmental policy, environmental objectives or other criteria using indicators.

    As in most management systems ISO14001 provides a structured process for the achievement of continual improvement.  The rate and extent of this continual improvement is determined by the organisation, taking economic and other circumstances into consideration.

    This environmental standard can be implemented in the entire organisation, or to specific operating units or activities of the organisation.

    Integration of environmental matters with the overall management system can contribute to the effective implementation of the environmental management system, as well as to the efficiency and to clarity of roles.

    4.2 Understanding the needs and expectation of interested parties

    Details the requirements that the organisation must determine:

    • The interested parties that are relevant to the environmental management system;
    • The relevant needs and expectations of these interested parties;
    • Which of these needs and expectations become its compliance obligations?

    4.3 Determining the scope of the environmental management system

    Details the requirement for the boundaries and applicability of the environmental management system to establish its scope.

    When determining this scope, the organisation must consider:

    • External and internal issues referenced in 4.1;
    • Compliance issues referenced in 4.2;
    • Its organisational unit(s) function(s) and physical boundaries;
    • Its activities, products and services;
    • Its authority and ability to exercise control and influence.

    Once produced as documented information it must be available to interested parties.

    4.4 Environmental management system

    Details the requirement to establish, implement, maintain and continually improve an environmental management system, including the processes needed and their interactions, in accordance with ISO 14001: 2015.

    5. LEADERSHIP

    5.1 Leadership and commitment

    Details of the requirement that top management must demonstrate leadership and commitment with respect to the environmental management system by:

    • Taking accountability for the effectiveness of the environmental management system;
    • Ensuring that the environmental policy and environmental objectives are established and are compatible with the strategic direction and context of the organisation;
    • Ensuring the integration of the environmental management system requirements into the organisation’s business processes;
    • Ensuring that the resources needed for the environmental management system are available;
    • Communicating the importance of effective environmental management and of conforming to the environmental management system requirements;
    • Ensuring that the environmental management system achieves its intended outcomes;
    • Directing and supporting persons to contribute to the effectiveness of the environmental management system;
    • Promoting continual improvement;
    • Supporting other relevant management roles to demonstrate their leadership as it applies to their areas of responsibility.

    5.2 Environmental Policy

    Details of the requirement to establish, implement and maintain an environmental policy, that within the defined scope of its environment management system:

    • Is appropriate to the purpose and context of the organisation, including the nature, scale and environmental impacts of its activities, products and services;
    • Provides a framework for setting environmental objectives;
    • Includes a commitment for the protection of the environment, including the prevention of pollution and other specific commitments relevant to the context of the organisation;
    • Includes a commitment to fulfil its compliance obligations;
    • Includes a commitment to continual improvement of the environmental management system to enhance environmental performance.

    The environmental policy must:

    • Be maintained as documented information;
    • Be communicated within the organisation;
    • Be available to interested parties.

    The official blog for independent Management Training
    Consultancy, Quality Matters Limited.

    Continuing our coverage of the new Standards here is some information about ISO 14001:2015

    IS0 14001 is a Model for environmental management systems. It specifies the requirements for an environmental management system that an organisation can use to enhance its environmental performance.

    The standard, issued in 1996, was revised and updated in 2004 and again in 2015 to complement ISO 9001:2015. It follows the Hi Level – Annex SL format.

    Formal assessment of an organisation’s environmental management system is carried out by an independent and accredited third party certification body.  If all the requirements are met, a certificate of conformity is issued.  Regular surveillance visits are carried out, subsequently, to ensure that the standard is being maintained.

    Accreditation of the Certification Bodies (CB’s) in the UK is carried out by UKAS (United Kingdom Accreditation Service) UKAS is the sole accreditor in the UK.

    A register of environmentally competent firms is maintained by the Stationery Office (TSO) under subscription and is used as a reference for purchasing authorities.

    The 2015 Standard allows for other means of showing conformance to ISO 14001:2015:

    • Making a self-determination and self-declaration, or
    • Seeking confirmation of its conformance by parties having an interest in the organisation, such as customers/clients, or
    • Seeking confirmation of its self-declaration by a party external to the organisation.

    The market-place is becoming ever more competitive. It is clear that only the companies providing quality goods or services and protecting the environment are going to be able to compete.

    The threat of global warming and its influence on the planet is easy to see with the change in climate year on year having marked effects.

    Put very simply, ISO 14001 is a declaration of an organisations ability to implement, maintain and improve an environmental management system. It has a duty to minimise the impact of its processes on the environment, fulfil compliance obligations and achieve environmental objectives.

    Today’s Global Market means that companies throughout the world are able to offer their goods and services on equal terms.   The increasing use of the internet and e-commerce for business makes it vital that we are able to compete.

    ISO 14001 makes it easier to compete in that marketplace.

    Legislation and Regulation require a company to prove that it has taken all necessary and reasonable steps to produce safe products that minimise the risk to people and the environment.

    • ISO 14001 helps provide such assurance.

    ISO 14001 requires 7 -10 main sections to be addressed before certification
    can take place.

    The 2015 standard does not allow any clauses to be excluded

    ISO 14001 BY SECTION  

    1. Scope
    2. Normative References- there are none
    3. Terms and definitions
    4. Context of the organisation
      1. Understanding the organisation and its context
      2. Understanding the needs and expectations of interested parties
      3. Determining the scope of the environmental management system
      4. Environmental Management system
    5. Leadership
      1. Leadership and commitment
      2. Environmental Policy
      3. Organisational roles, responsibilities and authorities
    6. Planning
      1. Actions to address risks and opportunities
        1. General
        2. Environmental aspects
        3. Compliance obligations
        4. Planning action
      2. Environmental objectives and planning to achieve them
        1. Environmental objectives
        2. Planning actions to achieve environmental objectives
      3. Planning of changes
    7. Support
      1. Resources
      2. Competence
      3. Awareness
      4. Communication
        1. General
        2. Internal communication
        3. External communication
      5. Documented information 
        1. General
        2. Creating and updating
        3. Control of documented information
    8. Operation
      1. Operational planning and control
      2. Emergency preparedness and response
    9. Performance evaluation
      1. Monitoring, measurement, analysis and evaluation
        1. General
        2. Evaluation of compliance
      2. Internal audit
        1. General
        2. Internal audit programme
      3. Management review
    10. Improvement
      1. General
      2. Nonconformity and corrective action
      3. Continual improvement
    The official blog for independent Management Training
    Consultancy, Quality Matters Limited.